(Reblogged from panchakshara)
currentsinbiology:

Mosquitoes transmit chikungunya in continental US (Nature News)
Two people have acquired the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus in the continental United States, the state of Florida’s Department of Health announced today. The cases, one in Miami-Dade County and another in Palm Beach County, confirm that the virus has infected US mosquitoes.
Chikungunya is an illness marked mainly by discomfort: a high fever, rashes, and severe joint, back and muscle pain. It is rarely fatal, and most recover within days or weeks. However, joint pain can sometimes persist for months. Chikungunya cannot be transmitted from person to person; it can be contracted only from a mosquito.
The United States is only the latest destination for the globetrotting virus. First described in the 1950s in East Africa, it has spread throughout central and southern Africa, India and Southeast Asia, generally through the mosquito Aedes aegypti. But a mutation that is suspected to have occurred in a 2005–06 outbreak on Réunion Island appears to have allowed it to infect Aedes albopictus, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito. This enabled the virus to spread as far north as Italy in 2007.
The photo is the structure of a Togaviridae family virus and represents the photo of a Chikungunya virus. The structure has a diameter of about 50nm to 70nm. Chikungunya virus consists of a single stranded positive sense RNA.

currentsinbiology:

Mosquitoes transmit chikungunya in continental US (Nature News)

Two people have acquired the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus in the continental United States, the state of Florida’s Department of Health announced today. The cases, one in Miami-Dade County and another in Palm Beach County, confirm that the virus has infected US mosquitoes.

Chikungunya is an illness marked mainly by discomfort: a high fever, rashes, and severe joint, back and muscle pain. It is rarely fatal, and most recover within days or weeks. However, joint pain can sometimes persist for months. Chikungunya cannot be transmitted from person to person; it can be contracted only from a mosquito.

The United States is only the latest destination for the globetrotting virus. First described in the 1950s in East Africa, it has spread throughout central and southern Africa, India and Southeast Asia, generally through the mosquito Aedes aegypti. But a mutation that is suspected to have occurred in a 2005–06 outbreak on Réunion Island appears to have allowed it to infect Aedes albopictus, also known as the Asian tiger mosquito. This enabled the virus to spread as far north as Italy in 2007.

The photo is the structure of a Togaviridae family virus and represents the photo of a Chikungunya virus. The structure has a diameter of about 50nm to 70nm. Chikungunya virus consists of a single stranded positive sense RNA.

(Reblogged from currentsinbiology)

The bottom line is that saying there are differences in male and female brains is just not true. There is pretty compelling evidence that any differences are tiny and are the result of environment not biology,” said Prof Rippon.

“You can’t pick up a brain and say ‘that’s a girls brain, or that’s a boys brain’ in the same way you can with the skeleton. They look the same.”

Prof Rippon points to earlier studies that showed the brains of London black cab drivers physically changed after they had acquired The Knowledge – an encyclopaedic recall of the capital’s streets.

She believes differences in male and female brains are due to similar cultural stimuli. A women’s brain may therefore become ‘wired’ for multi-tasking simply because society expects that of her and so she uses that part of her brain more often. The brain adapts in the same way as a muscle gets larger with extra use.

“What often isn’t picked up on is how plastic and permeable the brain is. It is changing throughout out lifetime

“The world is full of stereotypical attitudes and unconscious bias. It is full of the drip, drip, drip of the gendered environment.”

Prof Rippon believes that gender differences appear early in western societies and are based on traditional stereotypes of how boys and girls should behave and which toys they should play with.

(Reblogged from thenewenlightenmentage)

neurosciencestuff:

When good people do bad things

When people get together in groups, unusual things can happen — both good and bad. Groups create important social institutions that an individual could not achieve alone, but there can be a darker side to such alliances: Belonging to a group makes people more likely to harm others outside the group.

“Although humans exhibit strong preferences for equity and moral prohibitions against harm in many contexts, people’s priorities change when there is an ‘us’ and a ‘them,’” says Rebecca Saxe, an associate professor of cognitive neuroscience at MIT. “A group of people will often engage in actions that are contrary to the private moral standards of each individual in that group, sweeping otherwise decent individuals into ‘mobs’ that commit looting, vandalism, even physical brutality.”

Several factors play into this transformation. When people are in a group, they feel more anonymous, and less likely to be caught doing something wrong. They may also feel a diminished sense of personal responsibility for collective actions.

Saxe and colleagues recently studied a third factor that cognitive scientists believe may be involved in this group dynamic: the hypothesis that when people are in groups, they “lose touch” with their own morals and beliefs, and become more likely to do things that they would normally believe are wrong.

In a study that recently went online in the journal NeuroImage, the researchers measured brain activity in a part of the brain involved in thinking about oneself. They found that in some people, this activity was reduced when the subjects participated in a competition as part of a group, compared with when they competed as individuals. Those people were more likely to harm their competitors than people who did not exhibit this decreased brain activity.

“This process alone does not account for intergroup conflict: Groups also promote anonymity, diminish personal responsibility, and encourage reframing harmful actions as ‘necessary for the greater good.’ Still, these results suggest that at least in some cases, explicitly reflecting on one’s own personal moral standards may help to attenuate the influence of ‘mob mentality,’” says Mina Cikara, a former MIT postdoc and lead author of the NeuroImage paper.

Group dynamics

Cikara, who is now an assistant professor at Carnegie Mellon University, started this research project after experiencing the consequences of a “mob mentality”: During a visit to Yankee Stadium, her husband was ceaselessly heckled by Yankees fans for wearing a Red Sox cap. “What I decided to do was take the hat from him, thinking I would be a lesser target by virtue of the fact that I was a woman,” Cikara says. “I was so wrong. I have never been called names like that in my entire life.”

The harassment, which continued throughout the trip back to Manhattan, provoked a strong reaction in Cikara, who isn’t even a Red Sox fan.

“It was a really amazing experience because what I realized was I had gone from being an individual to being seen as a member of ‘Red Sox Nation.’ And the way that people responded to me, and the way I felt myself responding back, had changed, by virtue of this visual cue — the baseball hat,” she says. “Once you start feeling attacked on behalf of your group, however arbitrary, it changes your psychology.”

Cikara, then a third-year graduate student at Princeton University, started to investigate the neural mechanisms behind the group dynamics that produce bad behavior. In the new study, done at MIT, Cikara, Saxe (who is also an associate member of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research), former Harvard University graduate student Anna Jenkins, and former MIT lab manager Nicholas Dufour focused on a part of the brain called the medial prefrontal cortex. When someone is reflecting on himself or herself, this part of the brain lights up in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans.

A couple of weeks before the study participants came in for the experiment, the researchers surveyed each of them about their social-media habits, as well as their moral beliefs and behavior. This allowed the researchers to create individualized statements for each subject that were true for that person — for example, “I have stolen food from shared refrigerators” or “I always apologize after bumping into someone.”

When the subjects arrived at the lab, their brains were scanned as they played a game once on their own and once as part of a team. The purpose of the game was to press a button if they saw a statement related to social media, such as “I have more than 600 Facebook friends.”

The subjects also saw their personalized moral statements mixed in with sentences about social media. Brain scans revealed that when subjects were playing for themselves, the medial prefrontal cortex lit up much more when they read moral statements about themselves than statements about others, consistent with previous findings. However, during the team competition, some people showed a much smaller difference in medial prefrontal cortex activation when they saw the moral statements about themselves compared to those about other people.

Those people also turned out to be much more likely to harm members of the competing group during a task performed after the game. Each subject was asked to select photos that would appear with the published study, from a set of four photos apiece of two teammates and two members of the opposing team. The subjects with suppressed medial prefrontal cortex activity chose the least flattering photos of the opposing team members, but not of their own teammates.

“This is a nice way of using neuroimaging to try to get insight into something that behaviorally has been really hard to explore,” says David Rand, an assistant professor of psychology at Yale University who was not involved in the research. “It’s been hard to get a direct handle on the extent to which people within a group are tapping into their own understanding of things versus the group’s understanding.”

Getting lost

The researchers also found that after the game, people with reduced medial prefrontal cortex activity had more difficulty remembering the moral statements they had heard during the game.

“If you need to encode something with regard to the self and that ability is somehow undermined when you’re competing with a group, then you should have poor memory associated with that reduction in medial prefrontal cortex signal, and that’s exactly what we see,” Cikara says.

Cikara hopes to follow up on these findings to investigate what makes some people more likely to become “lost” in a group than others. She is also interested in studying whether people are slower to recognize themselves or pick themselves out of a photo lineup after being absorbed in a group activity.

(Reblogged from thenewenlightenmentage)

leesleftarm:

lalnascastle:

IF YOU DONT GET EXCITED OVER NATURE THEN WHAT DO YOU EVEN GET EXCITED ABOUT

I LOVE THE WHOLE WORLD IT’S SUCH A BRILLIANT PLACE BOOMDEYADAH BOOMDEYADAH BOOMDEYADAH

(Source: terra-mater)

(Reblogged from ollin-atl)
(Reblogged from aguiladejade)
(Reblogged from corrodedvessel)
ucsdhealthsciences:

New Approach to Remove Blood Clots Catheter-based system removes clots without open heart surgery  
When a large blood clot was discovered attached to the end of a catheter inside the right atrial chamber of a patient’s heart, doctors faced a daunting challenge. If the clot came loose, the consequences would likely be catastrophic for the patient, who suffered from pulmonary hypertension – a dangerous narrowing of blood vessels connecting the heart and lungs.
But experts at the UC San Diego Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center (SCVC) are now able to save patients like this one from potentially fatal outcomes by using a new technology capable of removing blood clots, infected masses or foreign bodies from major cardiac blood vessels without performing open-heart surgery.
The SCVC is the first in San Diego County to use the AngioVac system developed by AngioDynamics. The AngioVac is a catheter-based device in which thin tubes are inserted into two major veins in the body through the neck or groin area. Under X-ray guidance, the flexible tubes are advanced to the proximal veins, right-sided heart chambers and/or lung arteries. Each is equipped with an expandable, balloon-shaped funnel tip that, when attached to a bypass circuit, vacuums the targeted material, such as a blood, clot out of the body.
“In some cases, medications can be used to dissolve blood clots, but this treatment option does not work for all patients, especially those who are in a life-threatening situation,” said Mitul Patel, MD, FACC, interventional cardiologist at UC San Diego Health System. “This new device allows our team to safely extract material, preventing the patient from having to undergo invasive, high-risk surgery.”
Open-heart surgery takes much longer to perform and often requires the surgeon to divide the breastbone lengthwise down the middle and spread the halves apart to access the heart. After the heart is repaired, surgeons use wires to hold the breastbone and ribs in place as they heal.
"Removing a blood clot through open-heart surgery results in longer hospitalization, recovery and rehabilitation times compared to the minimally invasive approach provided by this new device," said Victor Pretorius, MBchB, cardiothoracic surgeon at UC San Diego Health System.
Read more here

ucsdhealthsciences:

New Approach to Remove Blood Clots
Catheter-based system removes clots without open heart surgery 

When a large blood clot was discovered attached to the end of a catheter inside the right atrial chamber of a patient’s heart, doctors faced a daunting challenge. If the clot came loose, the consequences would likely be catastrophic for the patient, who suffered from pulmonary hypertension – a dangerous narrowing of blood vessels connecting the heart and lungs.

But experts at the UC San Diego Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center (SCVC) are now able to save patients like this one from potentially fatal outcomes by using a new technology capable of removing blood clots, infected masses or foreign bodies from major cardiac blood vessels without performing open-heart surgery.

The SCVC is the first in San Diego County to use the AngioVac system developed by AngioDynamics. The AngioVac is a catheter-based device in which thin tubes are inserted into two major veins in the body through the neck or groin area. Under X-ray guidance, the flexible tubes are advanced to the proximal veins, right-sided heart chambers and/or lung arteries. Each is equipped with an expandable, balloon-shaped funnel tip that, when attached to a bypass circuit, vacuums the targeted material, such as a blood, clot out of the body.

“In some cases, medications can be used to dissolve blood clots, but this treatment option does not work for all patients, especially those who are in a life-threatening situation,” said Mitul Patel, MD, FACC, interventional cardiologist at UC San Diego Health System. “This new device allows our team to safely extract material, preventing the patient from having to undergo invasive, high-risk surgery.”

Open-heart surgery takes much longer to perform and often requires the surgeon to divide the breastbone lengthwise down the middle and spread the halves apart to access the heart. After the heart is repaired, surgeons use wires to hold the breastbone and ribs in place as they heal.

"Removing a blood clot through open-heart surgery results in longer hospitalization, recovery and rehabilitation times compared to the minimally invasive approach provided by this new device," said Victor Pretorius, MBchB, cardiothoracic surgeon at UC San Diego Health System.

Read more here

(Reblogged from currentsinbiology)
Education is in dire straits, mainly not because of poor teachers and principals but because the privatization movement and the profit motive has infested education’s inner sanctums with greed and an ideology which justifies it. The result is actually poorer education due to higher cost, lack of coordination, politics, commitment to profit rather than a good education, and too often amateurs guiding it.
(Reblogged from thenewenlightenmentage)
(Reblogged from aguiladejade)

onlyblackgirl:

Indigenous People’s Day Photo Project 2013

"Dear Columbus…"

Photo Credit: Andrew Burlingham

South Puget Sound Community College’s Diversity & Equity Center

Olympia, WA 

(Reblogged from revolutionaryriots)

neurosciencestuff:

‘Sticky synapses’ can impair new memories by holding on to old ones

A team of UBC neuroscientists has found that synapses that are too strong or ‘sticky’ can actually hinder our capacity to learn new things.

University of British Columbia researchers have discovered that so-called “sticky synapses” in the brain can impair new learning by excessively hard-wiring old memories and inhibiting our ability to adapt to our changing environment.

Memories are formed by strong synaptic connections between nerve cells. Now a team of UBC neuroscientists has found that synapses that are too strong or “sticky” can actually hinder our capacity to learn new things by affecting cognitive flexibility, the ability to modify our behaviours to adjust to circumstances that are similar, but not identical, to previous experiences.

“We tend to think that strong retention of memories is always a good thing,” says Fergil Mills, UBC PhD candidate and the study’s first author. “But our study shows that cognitive flexibility involves actively weakening old memory traces. In certain situations, you have to be able to ‘forget’ to learn.”

The study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that mice with excessive beta-catenin – a protein that is part of the “molecular glue” that holds synapses together – can learn a task just as well as normal mice, but lacked the mental dexterity to adapt if the task was altered.

“Increased levels of beta-catenin have previously been reported in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease, and, intriguingly, patients with these diseases have been shown to have deficits in cognitive flexibility similar to those we observed in this study,” says Shernaz Bamji, an associate professor in UBC’s Dept. of Cellular and Physiological Sciences.

“Now, we see that changes in beta-catenin levels can dramatically affect learning and memory, and may indeed play a role in the cognitive deficits associated with these diseases,” she adds. “This opens up many exciting new avenues for research into these diseases and potential therapeutic approaches.”

BACKGROUND

To test cognitive flexibility in mice, researchers conducted an experiment where the mice were placed in a pool of water and had to learn to find a submerged hidden platform. The mice with excessive beta-catenin could learn to find the platform just as well as normal mice. However, if the platform was moved to a different location in the pool, these mice kept swimming to the platform’s previous location. Even after many days of training, the ‘sticky synapses’ in their brains made them unable to effectively learn to find the new platform.

(Reblogged from thenewenlightenmentage)

txchnologist:

Could New Wireless Power Transfer Unleash Electric Medicine?

Stanford University engineers say they have figured out a way to wirelessly send electric power deeper into the body than ever before.

Inventor and electrical engineering assistant professor Ada Poon created a near-field power transmitter like those used to recharge wireless toothbrushes in their cradle. The difference is that hers uses tissue between the transmitter and medical device implanted in the body to amplify the electromagnetic waves. Her team then created an electrode and receiver unit about the size of a grain of rice that can be placed wherever electrical stimulation is required.

Read more and see the video below.

Read More

(Reblogged from thenewenlightenmentage)

I’ve been a blogger since 2011. Many who know me can notice my evolution, but I can read it here. From supporting consumerism, advertisements, and stupidity. I have moved on to the core of issues in the world. We need more great journalist here on tumblr like in any other source. Internet has been a great advantage and it will perhaps be taken away in a blink of an eye. I’ll pray tonight and any other night that these sparks become flames in our intellect, imagination, inspiration, and revolution. 

sagansense:

universalequalityisinevitable:

David Suzuki in this interview about facing the reality of climate change and other environmental issues from Moyers & Company.

Want a crash course in ignorance and power? Watch the “Economics" episode of Peter Joseph’s "Culture In Decline.”

(Reblogged from thenewenlightenmentage)